Evidence-Base Design: Nurs 6050: Week 7: Discussion 1

 Evidence Base in Design


When politics and medical science intersect, there can be much debate. Sometimes anecdotes or hearsay are misused as evidence to support a particular point. Despite these and other challenges, however, evidence-based approaches are increasingly used to inform health policy decision-making regarding causes of disease, intervention strategies, and issues impacting society. One example is the introduction of childhood vaccinations and the use of evidence-based arguments surrounding their safety.
In this Discussion, you will identify a recently proposed health policy and share your analysis of the evidence in support of this policy.

To Prepare:

  •  Review the Congress website provided in the Resources and identify one recent (within the past 5 years) proposed health policy.
  • Review the health policy you identified and reflect on the background and development of this health policy

Respond to at least two of your colleagues* on two different days by either supporting or respectfully challenging their explanation on whether there is an evidence base to support the proposed health policy they described.

Discussion 1 – Week 7 Nurs 6050

The Humane Correctional Health Care Act (H.R.4141) was introduced on 08/02/2019 by Kuster, New Hampshire Democrat, to ensure quality treatment to those incarcerated. Eighteen (18) bipartisan co-sponsors and two Senate, Energy, Commerce, and Senate Judiciary committees are officially designated to review the bill. (H.R. 4141) require states to protect inmates in Medicaid public facilities. The Government Accountability Office will report on individual prisoner health records and the impact of Medicaid coverage.

Now, according to Medicaid Legislation and Section 1905(a) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396d(a)), the bill requests amended to remove \’patient in a mental illness institution\’ and add \’this phrase does not require any other treatment or service compensation for any person under the age of 65 who is a patient in a mental illness institution.\’ The Eighth Amendment obliges prison authorities to provide sufficient medical services to inmates. This concept applies regardless of whether the medical treatment is given by government personnel or by private medical workers under government contracts.




Conditions include serious injury, pain or loss of function, later-stage pregnancy, severe dental problems, and mental health issues, particularly when an inmate becomes suicidal. Identifying prisoners with communicable illnesses immediately is another significant medical problem. The prison will also have an appropriate emergency response program. If outside facilities are too remote or too unavailable to handle emergencies quickly and adequately, the prison must have sufficient facilities and personnel to manage prison emergencies.

In Ohio, APRN\’s may conduct telehealth and on-site appointments in correctional facilities. Telehealth intends to address regional barriers to healthcare using information and communication technology (ICT). A growing body of research indicates telehealth can minimize health costs, enhance health outcomes, and expand access to healthcare services in different settings and under specific criteria. Telehealth programs should be discussed in correctional facilities to further facilitate H.R. Regulation 4141.


(n.d.). American Civil Liberties Union. Know Your Rights: Medical, Dental, and Mental Health Care. Retrieved April 6, 2020, from https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/4141

(2020,). The Center for Prisoner Health and Human Rights. Medical Care for Prisoners. Retrieved April 6, 2020, from https://www.prisonerhealth.org/resources-for-prisoners-families-and-advocates/prisoners-and-families/(2015, April). OHIO APRN PRACTICE SETTINGS. Retrieved April 6, 2020, from http://nebula.wsimg.com


Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

  • Chapter 5, Public Policy Design (pp. 87-95 only)
  •  Chapter 8, The Impact of EHRs, Big Data, and Evidence-Informed Practice (pp. 137-146)
  • Chapter 9, Interprofessional Practice (pp. 152-160 only)
  • Chapter 10, Overview: The Economics and Finance of Health Care(pp. 183-191 only)

American Nurses Association (ANA). (n.d.). Advocacy. Retrieved September 20, 2018, from https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/advocacy/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (n.d.). Step by step: Evaluating violence and injury prevention policies: Brief 4: Evaluating policy implementation. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/injury/pdfs/policy/Brief%204-a.pdf

Congress.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved September 20, 2018, from https://www.congress.gov/

Klein, K. J., & Sorra, J. S. (1996). The challenge of innovation implementation. Academy of Management Review, 21(4), 10551080. doi:10.5465/AMR.1996.9704071863
Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.
Sacristán, J., & Dilla, T. D. (2015). No big data without small data: Learning health care systems begin and end with the individual patient. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 21(6), 10141017. doi:10.1111/jep.12350

I will need two references for each response.

I will send the second response shortly.



Discussion 1: Evidence-Base Design


Hey, I am glad to hear from you

I agree with your post on the significance of the (H.r. 3171-Safe Disposal of Opioids Act of 2019) which focuses on the establishment of disposal sites for unwanted prescription/ medications.  The bill would, therefore, ensure that the medications are disposed of correctly minimizing cases of misuse and negative healthcare outcomes among the population. Stoicea et al. (2019) assert that in 2016, approximately 66 percent of drug overdose was related to opioids.

The statistics, therefore, indicate the severity of opioid overdose and misuse communicating the need to curbing loopholes for access to opioids. The lack of proper opioid disposal mechanisms increases the risk of misuse and the subsequent escalation of medical expenditure by individuals and the government on opioids treatment and rehabilitation (Buffington, Lozicki, Alfieri,  & Bond, 2019). I agree with the peer post that besides boosting effective opioid disposal, the bill would also increase education on effective opioid disposal for safe communities.

Response 2

Hey, I am glad to hear from you

I agree with your post on the importance of providing quality and safe healthcare services to incarcerated individuals to minimize the social-disparities associated with individuals in the correctional facilities. The quality of the healthcare services offered to inmates in the US has been widely criticized due to discrepancies in care such as delayed medical treatment and low quality of care (Nowotny, 2016).

The situation poses a dire need for changes considering that the after individuals are discharged from the correctional facilities they will most likely be missing healthcare coverage increasing their threat to poor healthcare outcomes. Due to limitations associated with the correctional facilities environment, telehealth would facilitate the delivery of diagnostic and treatment modalities among the incarcerated. Telehealth as a healthcare solution, when utilized in correctional facilities, is likely to alleviate the barriers related to healthcare restrictions such as geographic barriers associated with the correctional environment (Young & Badowski, 2017).


Buffington, D. E., Lozicki, A., Alfieri, T., & Bond, T. C. (2019). Understanding factors that contribute to the disposal of unused opioid medication. Journal of pain research12, 725–732. https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S171742

Nowotny K. M. (2016). Social Factors Related to the Utilization of Health Care Among Prison Inmates. Journal of correctional health care : the official journal of the National Commission on Correctional Health Care22(2), 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078345816633701

Stoicea, N., Costa, A., Periel, L., Uribe, A., Weaver, T., & Bergese, S. D. (2019). Current perspectives on the opioid crisis in the US healthcare system: A comprehensive literature review. Medicine98(20). https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015425

Young, J. D., & Badowski, M. E. (2017). Telehealth: Increasing Access to High Quality Care by Expanding the Role of Technology in Correctional Medicine. Journal of clinical medicine6(2), 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6020020